This shouldn’t be a chapter at all….

Anyway, here we go.

When we want to make something plural (making it more than one), we add an “s” to the word. The exception in most English words is when the word already ends in -s, -s, -ch, or something similar, and then we add an “es”.

I’m not going to speak of busses, buses, women or children here. That’s too complicated for this blog. I’m stayin’ simple.

Where we are goofing up is in adding an apostrophe. Where the heck did that come from? One tree, two trees. Not two tree’s. Simple.

One house. Three houses. One bird. Two thousand birds. It’s not that hard.

Apostrophes indicate that something belongs to someone. Try not to think about that when making something plural.

Bottom line: For simple plurals, add an “s.” Leave the apostrophes out of it.


Who’s and Whose

This one can be confusing for the same reason that it’s and its can be confusing. That blasted apostrophe in “who” can fool us into thinking it’s a possessive. But it’s not; it’s a contraction. It combines who and is.

So if you can say, “Who is (whatever),” then you’re OK with using who’s. “Who’s coming over?” and “Who is coming over?” mean the same thing.

But whose means belonging to the person you’re referring to. “Whose coat is this”? is accurate. “Who’s coat is this?” ends up meaning “Who is coat this is?” That doesn’t make any sense.

The possessive is whose. Who’s is a contraction of who and is.

Each and Every

We hear this phrase nearly every day, but mostly from advertisers. It’s an emphatic and exaggerated way of saying “each.” As you can see from the accompanying image, there is a difference between the two words, and it’s good to learn that difference so you can use each word correctly every time. (See what I just did there?)

But the two words, when used in tandem, mean essentially the same thing. So there is no need to say it twice. It’s redundant, and repetitive, and says the exact same thing over and over again. (See what I just did there?)

So say “each” or “every.” Just don’t say them together.